Dwi Astuti is a researcher at the Division of Zoolology, Reserach Centre for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia. She has completed her PhD from Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Her focus research is in the field of Bioscience, especieally in DNA analyses for studying genetic diversity, molecular phylogeny, and molecular ecology and genetic of animals. She has published some papers in national and international scientific journals and has been serving as a reviewer of some scientific journals


Enggano Island has Psittacula parakeet bird; Psittacula longicauda modesta. Phylogenetically, the position of the bird has not been studied yet. The recent study used DNA sequences of mitochondrial ND2 gene to analyze phylogenetic relationships within Psittacula parakeet birds. Blood samples were collected from two Psittacula species; Psittacula alexandri from Jawa Island, and Psittacula longicauda from Enggano Island and Natuna Island. Blood samples were taken from each bird and DNA was extracted from each blood sample. PCR was performed to amplify single DNA fragment of ND2, cytochromeb (Cyt B) and COI genes, separately using a pair of nucleotide primer. The DNA targets were then sequenced. Totally, 1020-bp of Cyt B gene was used to calculate genetic divergence within and between Psittacula parakeet, and to construct phylogenetic trees. DNA sequence data of Psittacula longicauda and others Psittacula species were taken from GenBank. Columba livia, Accipiter, and Cacatua were used as out group species. The genetic divergences within Psittacula longicauda were 3.70 % for (P.l. modesta vs. P.l. defontainei), 2.50 % for (P.l. defontainei vs. P.l. longicauda), and 1.60 % for (P.l. modesta vs. P.l. longicauda). Phylogenetic trees (NJ and ML trees) showed that based Psittacula longicauda was monophyletic species. Psittacula parakeet from Enggano Island (P.l. modesta) was separated from P.l. longicauda (from Sumatra/Borneo Island) and P.l. defontainei (from Natuna Island).

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