Karachi Medical and Dental College, Pakistan
Dr Fizza Hassan is a Final Year Student at Karachi Medical and Dental College, affiliated with Karachi University. She has been a keen researcher since High School and took part in many scientific projects at city level. She has attended several national and international seminars and conferences. She has taken part in many researches successfully published in international journals and many are ongoing. She is looking forward to a bright future in medical career.
Road traffic injuries are an emerging universal public health concern. Globally, RTIs contribute for over 1.2 million deaths and more than 50 million hospitalizations. Abbasi Shaheed hospital, being one of the apex tertiary level hospitals in one of the major cities of the Pakistan, data generated from this source, could be widely applicable to urban population.
This was a retrospective hospital based study of road traffic injuries and the sampling technique was non-probability convenient sampling. Data was collected from November 2014 till November 2015 and was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to access the predictors for road traffic collisions with a p value of less than 0.05 to be statistically significant. Continuous variable of age was presented as mean ± SD and categorical variables of type of vehicle, distraction, helmet status, and seat belt status, type of collision, injury site, injury type, respiratory rate, systolic BP and neurological status were presented as frequency or (%).
All patients admitted in the emergency department with presenting complain of bone fractures (greenstick, transverse, oblique, simple, compound, stress/hairline, buckled/torus, compression, segmental, comminuted), bone dislocation and trauma exposing bone due to road traffic accidents including motorcyclists, vehicle drivers and passengers.
Mean age was 26.83 ± 1.5 SD. Male drivers were 68% among which 70% were motor cyclists. The vehicle of collision was motor cycle in 32% of cases; the source of distraction was vehicle in 3.8% and sign board in 1.3% of cases. Head on collision was 14%, rear end 24% and side swipe was 20%. Musculoskeletal injury was 38.5% and fractures were 36% and lower limb was 23% involved among cases. Systolic BP was >89 in 94%, 76-89 in 5% of cases. Regarding neurological status 94% were alert and 5% responded to verbal stimuli. The following variables were significantly (p<0.05) associated with road traffic injuries. Regression analysis showed that Colliding vehicle was (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.15-1.55) and distraction was (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.38-1.97) statistically significant.
Road traffic crashes comprise a major public health dilemma in our setting and contribute significantly to unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. The citizens should be familiar with proper first aid training. Paramedics should be vigilant at all times to correctly respond to a patient’s needs. Medical teams at trauma centers must be proficient in their procedures. Trauma centers should be well equipped to reduce morbidity and mortality.