Ghazal Kharaji

Iran University of Medical Sciences School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran

Title: Review of literature on the role proprioception deficits in stress urinary incontinence


Ghazal Kharaji, MSc student. She is 24 years old. She is MSc student of Physical Therapy, Department of Physical Therapy, in Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. She has worked in pelvic floor physiotherapy for more than 2 years. She is working in Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) physical therapy clinic. She is interested in pelvic floor dysfunction physiotherapy. She is studying in this field specifically for proprioception of pelvic floor muscles, stress urinary incontinence and dynamometric measurements. She is making a modified dynamometer for pelvic floor muscles.



Urinary incontinence (UI) is more common than any other chronic disease. The prevalence of UI is between 9 and 74%. Among the various forms of UI, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most prevalent (50%). Studies have shown that postural activity of the PFMs is delayed during rapid arm movements in women with SUI and they have decreased balance ability compared to continent women. Increased activity of the PF and trunk muscles in women with SUI may impair balance as a result of a reduced contribution of trunk movement to postural correction or compromised proprioceptive acuity. The aim of this study is investigating whether the proprioception matters in SUI or not. Totally 30 articles from different databases have been reviewed.  Mechanoreceptors are present in the joint capsule, ligament, muscle, and skin, contribute to a complex reflex system, that acts to control posture and coordination. Timing is known as an important function of motor coordination and it is affected by proprioception as well. Proprioception has demonstrated profound effects on timing, muscle coordination, balance and postural activities which is impaired in women with SUI. Studies claimed that PFM training; vibration training and electrical stimulation have positive effects on SUI by improving proprioception that results in improve muscle coordination. Not only the strength of the PFM but also the timing of contraction of PFM is playing an important role in maintaining continence. Further research is needed to evaluate the proprioception of PFM in women with SUI as a matter of incontinence.