Jill Flo

Jill Flo

University College of Southeast Norway, Norway

Title: Content validity of the modified OPCq instrument - A pilot study in home health care in Norway


Jill Flo has her experience from clinical work as an Anaesthesia Nurse and from Department of Nursing Sciences as a senior lecture/associate professor. The research work is from evaluation studies concerning learning methods in nursing education using computer driven patient simulator in preclinical studies. She has evaluate use of learning management system and student’s evaluation of e-learning combined with traditional lectures, and suggestions for improvements in the post graduated program: Wound- prevention, treatments and palliation. She has also worked with project in interdisciplinary clinical practice (ICP). The research area is now the OPCq instrument a part of the RAFAELA patient classification system in home health care.



Statement of the Problem: A gradual increase in life expectancy has resulted in a larger aging population in developed countries. The number of hospital beds is decreasing and there is a shift towards nursing homes, residential care facilities and home health care (HHC). Due to the growing number of patients in HHC, a Patient Classification System (PCS) whereby the systematic registration of patients’ care needs, nursing intensity and the allocation of nursing staff can occur is needed. The validity and reliability of the modified OPCq instrument has been tested with good outcomes in hospital settings, and only once in primary health care for older people. In this study, the modified OPCq was tested for the first time in HHC in Norway. The purpose of this study was to test the content validity of the modified OPCq instrument in HHC.

Methods: A pilot study with a descriptive design. The data were collected through a questionnaire (n=44). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were used.

Results: The modified OPCq fulfills the requirements for validity in HHC, but the manual may need some minor adjustments.

Conclusion: The modified OPCq seems to be useful for measuring nursing intensity in HHC. Staff training and guidance, high-quality technological solutions and that all technology works satisfactorily are important when implementing a new PCS. Further research is needed in regard to nursing intensity and the optimal allocation of nursing staff in an HHC setting.

Recent Publications:

  1. Flo J, Landmark B, Hatlevik O, Tønnessen S & Fagerström L (2016) Testing of the content validity of a Modified OPCq instrument – A pilot study in Norwegian Home Health Care. Open Journal of Nursing 6: 1012-1027.
  2. Andersen M.H., Lønning K., & Fagerström, L. (2014) Testing Reliability and Validity of the Oulu Patient Classification Instrument – The first Step in Evaluating the RAFAELA System in Norway. Open Journal of Nursing 4: 303-311.
  3. Fagerström, L., Lønning, K. & Andersen, M.H. (2014) The RAFAELA system: a workforce planning tool for nurse staffing and human resource management. Nursing Management 21: 30-36.
  4. Frilund, M., & Fagerström L. (2009). Validity and reliability testing of the Oulu patient classification: instrument within primary health care for the older people. International Journal of Older People Nursing 2009a; 4: 280-287.
  5. Fagerström L. (2009) Evidence-based human resource management: a study of nurse leaders’ resource allocation. Journal of Nursing management 17: 415-425.