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Abstract

Assessment of biochemical safety and anti-hepatitis B activity of ethanol stem bark extracts of Vitex doniana and Lophira alata in Wistar rats was carried out. Forty-two(42) albino rats were used for the study. The animals were divided into six(6) groups of seven(7) animals each. Groups II-VI were inoculated with hepatitis-B virus. Group 1 and 2 served as normal and positive controls respectively and were given distilled water. Group III received 300mg/kgBW of anti-retroviral drug, while group IV received 244mg/kgBW of Vitex doniana, group V received 244mg/kgBW of Lophira alata and group VI received combination of Vitex doniana and Lophira alata both at 244mg/kgBW. The treatment was administered twice daily for ninety days. Results of biochemical indices determination revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in AST activity in group VI compared with normal controls but was significantly lowered when compared with positive control. However, ALT activities in group V showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease while that of group VI was significantly (p<0.05) increased compared with controls. ALP activities showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in all treatment groups compared with the positive control. Total protein, globulin and albumin showed significant (p<0.05) increase in treated groups compared with controls. Significant (p<0.05) decreased was observed for blood urea nitrogen in treated groups compared with positive control but compares well with normal control. However, the creatinine levels of groups IV,V and VI were significantly (p<0.05) lowered compared with controls. Haematological indices assessed revealed no significant (p>0.05) changes in treated groups compared with controls. Results of serum electrolytes assayed revealed no significant (p<0.05) changes for K+, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- in groups III and IV compared with controls but insignificant(p<0.05) increased were observed in group VI at (p<0.05). The DPPH and FRAP anti-oxidant results showed that Vitex doniana has high anti-oxidant power which compared well with the standard (vitamin C) and the degree of its anti-oxidant properties was noticed to increase with increased in concentration of the extract but this trend was not observed for Lophira alata as it displayed a lower anti-oxidant potential compared with vitamin C. Lipid profile results revealed that the treatments reduced TC, HDL-C and LDL-C values for groups III, IV, V and VI significantly (P<0.05) while the levels of TG and VLDL-C in these groups were found to increase compared with normal control. Histopathological investigation revealed no serious pathological changes in the liver, spleen and kidneys of animals in groups treated with V. doniana and the combined extracts of V.doniana and L. alata. However, slight pathological changes were noticed in the liver and kidneys of animals in group V which received L. alata compared with the controls. A drastic reduction in viral load in treatment groups with more reduced value in combined treatment group. Finally, the ethanol stem bark extract of L. alata and V. doniana had varying impacts on biochemical indices investigated. Co-administration in the treatment of HBV-induced hepatitis in Wistar rats is relatively safe Assessment of biochemical safety and anti-hepatitis B activity of ethanol stem bark extracts of Vitex doniana and Lophira alata in Wistar rats was carried out. Forty-two(42) albino rats were used for the study. The animals were divided into six(6) groups of seven(7) animals each. Groups II-VI were inoculated with hepatitis-B virus. Group 1 and 2 served as normal and positive controls respectively and were given distilled water. Group III received 300mg/kgBW of anti-retroviral drug, while group IV received 244mg/kgBW of Vitex doniana, group V received 244mg/kgBW of Lophira alata and group VI received combination of Vitex doniana and Lophira alata both at 244mg/kgBW. The treatment was administered twice daily for ninety days. Results of biochemical indices determination revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in AST activity in group VI compared with normal controls but was significantly lowered when compared with positive control. However, ALT activities in group V showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease while that of group VI was significantly (p<0.05) increased compared with controls. ALP activities showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in all treatment groups compared with the positive control. Total protein, globulin and albumin showed significant (p<0.05) increase in treated groups compared with controls. Significant (p<0.05) decreased was observed for blood urea nitrogen in treated groups compared with positive control but compares well with normal control. However, the creatinine levels of groups IV,V and VI were significantly (p<0.05) lowered compared with controls. Haematological indices assessed revealed no significant (p>0.05) changes in treated groups compared with controls. Results of serum electrolytes assayed revealed no significant (p<0.05) changes for K+, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- in groups III and IV compared with controls but insignificant(p<0.05) increased were observed in group VI at (p<0.05). The DPPH and FRAP anti-oxidant results showed that Vitex doniana has high anti-oxidant power which compared well with the standard (vitamin C) and the degree of its anti-oxidant properties was noticed to increase with increased in concentration of the extract but this trend was not observed for Lophira alata as it displayed a lower anti-oxidant potential compared with vitamin C. Lipid profile results revealed that the treatments reduced TC, HDL-C and LDL-C values for groups III, IV, V and VI significantly (P<0.05) while the levels of TG and VLDL-C in these groups were found to increase compared with normal control. Histopathological investigation revealed no serious pathological changes in the liver, spleen and kidneys of animals in groups treated with V. doniana and the combined extracts of V.doniana and L. alata. However, slight pathological changes were noticed in the liver and kidneys of animals in group V which received L. alata compared with the controls. A drastic reduction in viral load in treatment groups with more reduced value in combined treatment group. Finally, the ethanol stem bark extract of L. alata and V. doniana had varying impacts on biochemical indices investigated. Co-administration in the treatment of HBV-induced hepatitis in Wistar rats is relatively safe and effective at the dose investigated and can be a candidate for the development new drug.