Study 1: Many previous studies have confirmed that psychological resilience is closely related to self-control capacity (emotional regulation, perseverance, positivity) as well as relational capacity (sense of relatedness, empathy and communication competence). In short, to be resilient one should be able to control oneself and keep good relations with others. We developed scales for measuring resilience, and tested the items with the two independent groups collected from nationwide surveys: Group 1 (N=724, age=42.81±12.98, male=49.6%) and Group 2 (N=928, age=29.69±5.48, male=48.6%). Using a series of confirmatory factor analyses, we identified the 67 items, and then tested the scale with other two independent groups: Group 3 (N=785, age=42.77±12.97, male=49.8%) and Group 4 (N=961, age=27.13±4.37, male=48.4%). Study 2: Using the 67-item resilience scale, the authors examined resilience of the employees of two large companies (age=40.32±5.23, male=82.1%) and the adolescents (N=424, age=16.90±1.19, male=48.6%) at the high schools. As expected, those who showed higher resilience performed better at the work and at the school. Study 3: The authors trained 10th grade students (N=315) at a high school with the mental muscle enhancing program, or the GRIT training program, for two months. The positive effects of the training on the levels of resilience were found.


Joohan Kim (PhD in communication, University of Pennsylvania, 1997) had been teaching at Boston College as a tenure-track Assistant Professor until 1999, when he moved to Yonsei University in Seoul. He has published numerous research papers and books, including Resilience in 2011, a bestseller in South Korea. His research is currently focusing on the physiological bases of resilience and communication competence with HRV, EEG and fMRI. He has developed the scales for measuring resilience and the training programs for enhancing resilience, self-control, emotional regulation, and communication competence.