After multiple researches specialized in Adolescentology and Midwifery, Kaori Watanabe studied Public Health at Akita University Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine. Currently, She is conducting the study on Adolescent Behavior Theory (particularly, sexual behavior and awareness) and Social Capital (defined as “networks together with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate co-operation within or among groups”) that has been rarely addressed before in the world.


We aimed to reveal the association between cognitive, social capital and sexual awareness among high school students in Ho Chi Minh City. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and a cross sectional study in late 2014, with 2,051 eleventh graders in Ho Chi Minh City. We assessed basic attributes, sexual knowledge, sexual awareness, sexual experience of peers, cognitive social capital such as a sense of community belonging, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem score. After multiple logistic regression analyses on sexual awareness were performed assigning trivalent Rosenberg Self-Esteem score, sexual knowledge, and sexual experience of peers as independent variables (model 1), followed by analysis adjusted for cognitive social capital (model 2). Of all participants, 45.8% in males and 49.4% in femaless correctly answered on sexual knowledge, 47.6% of males and 28.3% of females accepted premarital sex, 60.0% of male and 65.0% of females knew peers with sexual experience, and 78.1% of males and 79.1% of females agreed with a sense of community belonging. When multiple logistic regression analyses performed, in model 1, sexual awareness was significantly associated with Rosenberg Self-Esteem score in female. In model 2, above association disappeared, but significant association was found between sexual awareness and cognitive social capital in both sexes. The Vietnamese conservative, traditional culture seems to be similar to the concept of cognitive, social capital and it is considered to have influenced sexual awareness of high school students in Ho Chi Minh City. Cognitive, social capital is significantly associated with sexual awareness among high school students in urban areas.

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