Kayo Shichiri has completed her graduation in Psychology from Rikkyo University. She started working as Clinical Psychologist at the Department of Psychiatry, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences. Later she obtained her PhD from the National University of Niigata. Presently, she is working at the Health Administration Center, Headquarters for Health Administration and Environmental Safety, Niigata University, specializing in Adolescent Psychiatry, Clinical Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Mental Health, Psychopathology, and Psychological Diagnostics. She has continued her research conscientiously and earnestly at the aforementioned school and concentrated her effort on Mental Health Counseling for students and teaching staff at Niigata University


In our article about the defensive functioning scale (DFS) proposed in the 4th edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV), we attempted to quantify this scale by summing scores of seven defense levels based on individual defense mechanisms. To further explore and verify this scale, we tried to compare DFS and Beck’s depression inventory (BDI). A total of 100 physically and mentally healthy university students participated in this study. There were 51 males and 49 females. We investigated their developmental level using DFS, and measured BDI. Then we compared the relationships between DFS and BDI scores. We compared male and female results, too. All participants average age was 19.5±0.7 (male 19.6±0.6, female 19.4±0.7). Average score of DFS was 656.5±96.0 (male 656.9±94.1, female 656.1±98.8) and average score of BDI was 12.6±9.4 (male 11.2±8.9, female 14.0±9.8).We examined Spearman’s rank correlations between DFS and BDI scores, and compared male and female student’s scores. The results indicated statistically significant correlations in only male students, but not female students. The findings suggest that there is a gender specific factor in relationships between DFS score and BDI scores. Male and female differences were elucidated in our previous study