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The phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the aqueousl extract of Curcuma longa L. (AEC) rhizome was investigated. Phytochemical constituents present in AEC were found to be alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins and terpenes. The aqueous extract of the plant was found to be relatively less-toxic with an intraperitoneal and oral acute toxicity (LD50) of greater than 2000 and 5000 mg/kg respectively. AEC produced significant (p < 0.05) and dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. AEC (1000 mg/kg) exhibited a maximum percentage inhibition (72.25%) in acetic acid-induced writhing response and at 90 min produced an increase pain threshold by 64.14% % in the hotplate test. The results demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Cucuma longa rhizome possessed significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive acivities, contains some pharmacologically active substances, which might be responsible for the established anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in the plant extract and was relatively less-toxic.