Mahmoud El Feel
Agriculture Research Center, Egypt
Mahmoud El Feel is currently working as an Assistant Researcher, Beekeeping Department, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt. He has completed his Philosophy of Doctorate and Master of Sciences in Agriculture, Apiculture, Entomology (Plant Protection) from Cairo University, higher study Diploma in Agriculture (Apiculture & Silk culture) from El Menofea University in 2001 and Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, General Plant Production from Alexandria University in 1998.
The objective of this review was to determine the influence of bee venom (BV) as immunostimulant activity and the immunomodulatory activity of BV on cytokines production. Bee venom acts upon both innate and adaptive immune response. Compounds in bee venom decrease proinflammatory cytokine synthesis (IL-2, IL-12 and IL-4), inactivate both the classical and alternative complement pathway and decrease superoxide anion production in neutrophils. It could be concluded that time and dose-dependent response as well as the type of treated cell line could determine the immunosuppressive and/or immunostimulant property of bee venom that could be effective in future therapeutic strategies.