Maninder Kaur is Assistant Professor in Department of Anthropology at Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. Her area of specialization is biological anthropology (Human Growth and Nutrition, Gerontology). She was awarded All India Junior Research Fellowship by University Grants Commission (UGC) in year 1999. She has successfully completed two major research projects funded by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi. She is currently investigating a major research project on Cognitive rigidity among social groups of Haryana (Khap Panchayat). She has published a number of research papers in national and international journals of repute.


Aim: The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate prevalence and association of hypertension and bone mineral density among postmenopausal women living in various parts of North India.

Procedure: A sample of 250 postmenopausal women ranging in age between 45 to 80 years was selected by purposive sampling from various parts of north India (Haryana, Punjab, and Chandigarh). Anthropometric parameters (height, weight), physiological variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate), hypertension (as per JNC VII criteria) and bone mineral density (using dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry at lumbar spine L1-L4) of all the participants were recorded. Findings indicated that 40.4% women were identified with hypertension, out of which 12.8% had normal bone mineral density, 16.4% and 11.2% were osteopenic and osteoporotic respectively.

Results: Comparative analysis revealed that hypertensive osteoporotic subjects had significantly higher mean values for systolic blood pressure (142.71 vs. 127.22, p<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (92.68 vs. 82.39, p<0.001) and pulse rate (71.79 vs. 68.81, p<0.01) as compared to their normotensive osteoporotic counterparts. Results from binary logistic regression analysis revealed that in osteoporotic subjects odds of having systolic blood pressure was 2.32 (CI=1.05-5.13), for diastolic blood pressure 1.48 (CI=0.96-2.31), and for pulse rate 1.31 (CI=0.64-2.68).

Conclusion: The results demonstrated that high blood pressure is negatively associated with bone mineral density among elderly population.