University of Memphis, USA
Ms. Purnell is currently a licensed Family Nurse Practitioner who serves as an Assistant Clinical Professor at the University of Memphis, Loewenberg College of Nursing and a Sub-Investigator for the University of Tennessee Preventive Medicine, Clinical Trials Department. She also practices at Stern Cardiovascular Center on a part-time basis where she has functioned as a NP in both acute care and clinic settings. She received her BSN from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and her MSN, FNP at the University of Memphis. She is an active member of Sigma Theta Tau, American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, Greater Memphis Association of Advanced Practice Nurses and Desoto County Nurse Practitioner Association. She is currently licensed in both Tennessee and Mississippi as an Advanced Practice Nurse. She is also credentialed and maintains current privileges to practice as a Nurse Practitioner at Baptist Memphis and Baptist Desoto Hospitals.
Introduction/Objectives:Mounting evidence suggests that non-excitable cells respond to changes in membrane potential, and that these “bioelectric” signals play important roles in the development, physiology, regeneration and pathology of cells.It is well established that the transmembrane potential of inflamed/injured cells is depolarized (-20mV) compared to healthy cells (-70mV). Our research suggests that the transmembrane potential of these inflamed/injured cells can be modulated through the application of an electromagnetic field in water such thatincreased cellmigration and decreased cell inflammationoccur as verified by scratch assays, Affymetrix 2.0 microarray analyses and real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) validations. Methods: Experimental controlled, in vitroand genomic experiments were conducted onmouse fibroblasts (L929) and human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). The experiments involved culturing aliquots of each cell line in growth media that was reconstituted with a hypotonic saline solution (3mM, NaCl) that had been exposed to an electromagnetic field generated by a device called the Cellular Energy Transfer Science (CETS) unit. The controls consisted of cells cultured in media prepared with the same hypotonic saline solution prior to treatment with the CETS unit. Aliquots of each cell type were plated and scratches made (n=18) in each of the treated and control plates of these cell lines. Phase contrast pictures were obtained at 3-hour intervals until the treated groups reached confluence. The data were analyzed withImageJ software to obtain the percent area of wound healed over time. We then conducted Student’s t-test between the percent change in area at the time points of 3 and 9 hours using SAS 9.4. Also, after isolating mRNA with a QIAcubefrom the treated and control MCF-10A cells grown in the treated and control media for 3 days,Affymetric 2.0 microarray and real-time PCR were conducted. The microarray data were analyzed using Ingenuity pathway analysis and the real-time PCR data were analyzed with the delta-delta CT method and with unpaired t-tests using SAS 9.4. Results: In the scratch assay analysis, there was a significant difference in percent area of wound healed over time in the treated versus the control groups. Also, there was asignificant up-regulation and fold change noted inAmphiregulin (AREG) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that aregenes known to regulate wound care. Chloride intracellular channel protein 4 (CLIC4) which is found to help regulate cell pH, transepithelial transport and membrane potential also showed a significant fold change in gene expression. Conclusion: Wound care presents significant challenges to our health care system. The scratch assay data suggest improved wound healing through organized cell polarity and migration. Also, the genomic data suggests the treated hypotonic saline solution from the CETS unit significantly affectstranscription and gene expression of membrane potential and wound healing. This application of the electromagnetic field by the CETS unit has potential to translate to human subjects in the near future through the administration of footbaths/baths. In vivo mouse experiments and Phase 1 safety clinical trials are currently under way and could offer a new treatment option with few side effects for wound care that society as yet to experience.