Mohamed El-Said Farghaly

Mohamed El-Said Farghaly

Suez Canal University, Egypt

Title: Diversity of Seaweeds and Sea-grasses in the Egyptian Mediterrian Coastal Eco-Zones


Has over 40 years experience in Biological and Environmental problems in Tropical and sub-tropical Ecosystems , Pollution Control and Management. Being a Founder head of Marine Science Department , Technical Advisor and Consultant he had participated and contributed in solving many Environmental problems . Since his graduation in 1965 he assisted and then managed several academic university undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Natural History Marine Biology and Applied Ecology . From  1975 till now he is running and conducting researches on the Mediterranean and  the Indo-pacific seas with special interest to the Reef problems  in the Red Sea and adjacent coasts . As the Director of many Ph.D. Theses he has a very distinguished students in Egypt and Abroad. Member in many scientific societies in Europe ,having good contact with  the scientific institutions visited in USA, Australia  , Europe and Arab  countries. Participant  of many National & International Scientific Congresses Workshops and Symposia. Author of 118 Research works , Scientific or Environmental Reports ,Theses and Notes. Published and Preparing some books in English and Arabic


The Egyptian Mediterranean coastal area lies between  Sallom  west and Rafah East, about 1100km, is enjoying high an economic value and ecological variability . They offer a wide variety of valuable habitats and ecosystem services that have always attracted humans and human activities. Egypt has a promising plan for the management of Mediterranean coastal area including the improvement of fisheries and aquaculture . Macro-phytes provides the fuel of life to the coastal ecosystems . Substrates , Salinity , water temperature and the Water transparency are the most important factors controlling the Marine Algal Biodiversity.

Environmental conditions are variable within the 100m depth of the water along the Egyptian coast . It is closer to the shore to the west and the distance gradually increases to the east. At Port Said it is furthest from the shore and further east it becomes closer again. This is caused by the alluvial cone that has built up in front of the mouth of the Nile in the Delta area. So the macro-phyte community structures are variable . Although there were many works on the coastal vegetation , the marine macro-phytes were scarcely and occasionally explored . Many lists had been published from Alexandria , some from Port-Said but still the image of distribution along the western and Sinai  coasts are vague. We investigated the floristic elements and vegetation types in terms of species composition as well as diversity and adaptation in the different environmental conditions along the coast of Egypt on the Mediterranean . Seasonal field investigations, observations  and collections of Seaweeds ,Sea-grasses and associated Blue-Greens  were carried out in the Western Egyptian coastal area(2000-2010). About 410 Taxa ; 30.Blue greens and 380 Seaweeds were encountered in this work. Comparison and analysis of data collected ,with occasional collections as well as previously recorded data and measurements demonstrates 5 Eco-zones for the distribution of benthic vegetation along the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast. The 5 zones are different in the environmental conditions supporting life , reproduction and distribution of Seaweeds as well as their diversity. 5 species of Sea-grasses had been encountered in this study for their support of life to many epiphytic algal species as well as the Blue Greens inhabitants in their meadows. These findings helped in drawing a good picture on the diversity and distribution of macro-phytes in time and space , quantitatively and qualitatively  . The resulted lists with the knowledge of the dominant currents gave an idea of  the possibility of migration for many species from the western basin via the Tunisian and Libyan coasts. This can contribute to the knowledge, and development for best practices in managing coastal zones in the Egyptian  Mediterranean .