Mona Radwan (1), Hikmet Jamil (2), Thamer Hamdan (3), Taghreed Alnoor (4) and Nadia Alnoor (5)

Mona Radwan (1), Hikmet Jamil (2), Thamer Hamdan (3), Taghreed Alnoor (4) and Nadia Alnoor (5)

1 Zagazig University, Egypt, 2 Michigan State University, USA, 3 University of Basra- Iraq, 4 College, University of Baghdad Ibn- Al Haitham, Baghdad, Iraq., 5 College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq

Title: Impact of chemical and non-chemical agents on respiratory system including asthma among Iraqi people


Mona Radwan has completed her PhD from Zagazig University and Post-doctoral studies from Lund University School of Medicine and School of Social Sciences, respectively. She is one of the steering committee members of Women IN Great Sciences (WINGS) at Lund University. She has published various articles in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute.


Introduction: Asthma is marked by reversible airway obstruction and airway inflammation. People with asthma demonstrate symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and exertional dyspnea—that are accompanied by greater airflow obstruction. Chronic bronchitis is described by chronic cough and sputum production. Pulmonary emphysema (commonly mentioned to as emphysema) is a pathologic course including air-space expansion distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by destruction of the bronchiolar walls. COPD includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Objective: Objectives of the study were to find out: The prevalence rate of asthma and other lung disease in general and by different sub-categories of populations that exist at different distances from war zone; predictive risk factors for asthma and other lung diseases and; the impact of chemical (Ch) and non-chemical (NCh) agents on different kinds of lung diseases in relationship to diverse war sectors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study constructed on a sample of 1155 Iraqis who survived in the Basra and Messan (South of Iraq) Provence in 2002. Only males were recruited in the study with the ages of 18–45 years and were within 300 Km of the epicenter of the 1991 GW. The study population were assigned to one of three GW exposure zones, based on where they were located during the 1991 GW, as follow: zone one (war zone within 100 Km of Kuwait), zone two (within 100-190 Km) and zone three (within 200-300 Km).

Results: The study results showed that 50.8% of study populations were in zone three and 14.5% in zone one. There was a significant difference in the prevalence rate of asthma in general across the three war zones: highest in zone one (9.8%) compared to zone two (1.8%), and 5.8% in zone three. The significant difference also applied to other lung diseases; pneumonia, bronchitis and other lung conditions studied. As to bronchitis, the highest rate was among zone one (27.2%) and the lowest among zone three (9.4%). The results identified the predictor risk factors for asthma as those of lived in zone two, with high BMI and higher income. All asthmatic, bronchitis, pneumonia and other lung diseases inhaled smoke from fired oil wells while there was no significant effect on exposure to non-chemical factors like hearing chemical alarms or any dead bodies.

Conclusion: The study concludes some risk factors for asthma and other lung diseases.