Muhamad Ali K Shakhatreh, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi, Majed M Masadeh, Emad I Hussein and George N Bshara
Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
Muhamad Ali K Shakhatreh has completed his PhD. from University of Dayton- USA. Currently, he is an Assistant Professor in Jordan University of Science and Technology (Jordan) in the field of Microbiology. His research experience and interests are in bacteriology with focusing on medical microbiology. He has 6 publications.
Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) has significantly increased worldwide. It has become a global public health problem (threat) and a serious global concern. This type of smoking is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking which is a potential risk factor. The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes remain unknown. However, few studies investigated and reported the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and adverse health effects (deleterious health effects associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking). Little is known about effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on oral health (if it can cause oral health problems). The objective of the current investigation is to determine the effect of waterpipe tobacco smoking on the changes in oral microbial flora which is still under investigation. Samples were taken aseptically from the oral cavity and subgingival regions of healthy participants (waterpipe smokers and waterpipe non-smokers). To identify types, frequency and mean number of microorganisms in cultures from the oral cavity and subgingival regions, standard bacterial culture methods were used. The present study provides a preliminary proof (evidence) indicating that oral microbial flora is significantly changed (altered) by waterpipe tobacco smoking (linking between waterpipe tobacco smoking and alteration in oral microflora).