Nadezhda Kudryasheva completed M.Sc., Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, USSR . She has published more than 300 articles. Her main research interests are spectroscopy, structure of molecules, chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, physico-chemical processes in biological systems, bioassays, toxic mechanisms, radiotoxicity, hormesis, antioxidant activity. Currently working at Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Krasnoyarsk, Russia


Luminescence of living systems is a convenient parameter to monitor environmental toxicity. Luminescent systems of different complexity – luminous marine bacteria, their enzyme reactions, and coelenteramide-containing fluorescent proteins (CLM-CFPs) were used as bioassays to monitor toxicity of water solutions under model conditions; toxic effects were compared at cellular, biochemical and protein levels, respectively. Organic compounds, metallic salts, and radioactive elements (under conditions of low-dose irradiation) were applied to vary toxicity of media. Luminescence inhibition (toxic) and activation (adaptive response) effects were evaluated and discussed. Application of CLM-CFPs as toxicity bioassays of a new type is justified, they can serve as a proper tool for study efficiency of primary physicochemical processes in organisms under external exposures. Coelenteramide (CLM), fluorophore of CLM-CFPs, is a photochemically active molecule; it acts as a proton donor in its electron-excited states, generating several forms of different fluorescent state energy and, hence, different fluorescence color, from violet to green. Contributions of the forms to the visible fluorescence depend on the CLM microenvironment in proteins. Hence, CLM-CFPs can serve as fluorescence biomarkers with color differentiation to monitor results of destructive biomolecule exposures. Variations of spectral-luminescent and photochemical properties of CLM-CFPs under different exposures – chemicals and ionizing radiation is considered.Application of the luminescent bioassays for detoxification efficiency evaluation is discussed. Natural and artificial bioactive compounds, humic substances and fullerenols, are used as detoxifying agents. Detoxification mechanisms were revealed to be complex, with chemical, biochemical, and cellular aspects conditioning those.