Suez Canal University, Egypt
Nermine El-Maraghy is Associate Professor of Medical Microbiology & Immunology. She completed Master’s degree and PhD in Medical Microbiology & Immunology from Facuulty of Medicine Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. She is a member of tumor oncology unit, clinical epidemiology units at Faculty of Medicine Suez Canal University. She had great experience in the era of clinical immunology, allergy skin prick test, immunotherapy, diagnostic microbiology and infection control. She has several international publications on PubMed and Google Scholar. She is the reviewer of the Infectious & Non-Infectious Diseases (online), Suez Canal University Medical Journal and Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (online).
Hospital acquired pneumonia occurs more than 48 h after hospital admission and was not present at the time of admission, while ventilator associated pneumonia occurs after 48–72 h of endotracheal intubation or within 48 h of extubation.HAP is the second most common nosocomial infection and accounts for approximately 25% of all infections in the Intensive Care Unit worldwide.