Normalina Sandora has obtained her Medical degree from Andalas University, Indonesia. She works as a Medical Doctor and lecturer of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Riau, Indonesia. She had taken a Master’s degree in Clinical Embryology (2009) in Monash University, Australia and currently in the final year PhD training in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine in the Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (iMBE), University of Leeds, UK.


Injury of ligament is common during sports; a tear of anterior cruciate ligament requires replacement to prevent premature osteoarthritis. A decellularized biological scaffold taken from xenograft was proposed and the potentiality of the biological graft to regenerate was investigated by seeding the grafts with 105 of human bone marrow MSCs followed by 7 days of incubation in a TenCell-1 bioreactor; with and without uniaxial tensile stimulations (4, 6 and 8% and 1 Hz, 4 hours per day). For each strain group, the pre-incubation seeded tendon scaffolds were also compared. Results: The samples with mechanical stimulations showed to increase their cellularity with nuclei arranged in between the fibers. The mechanical stimulated samples demonstrated to have a higher viability compared to the unstimulated and the pre-incubation samples. No differences were found among the mechanical stimulated or the pre-incubation samples however the 6% strain group showed to have the highest viability among other strength groups. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the mechanical stimulated samples was significantly higher compared to the unstimulated and the pre-incubation samples of each strain group. The mechanical stimulated samples had expressed tenogenesis gene expressions (collagen 1, collagen 3 and tenascin C) and not expressed the adipogenesis (PPARγ) and chondrogenesis (collagen 2 and Sox9) lineages. Osteopontin was expressed in the 6% strain group. The decellularized tendon scaffolds were found able to regenerate into tendon after 7 days of incubation with 4, 6 and 8% uniaxial tensile stimulations, whereas the 6% strength gave the highest cellular viability. Further investigation is needed to investigate why osteopontin was expressed in the 6% strain strength.