Central Michigan University, USA
Norman S. Miller, MD, JD, PLLC, is the Medical Director, Detoxification and Residential Pro-grams, Bear River Health at Walloon Lake; and the President, Health Advocates PLLC. Umer Farooq, MD, is a Clinical Assistant Professor, Michigan State University College of Human Medi¬cine; and the Director, Dual Diagnosis Program, Pine Rest Christian Mental Health Services.
Why are opioid medications prescribed in large quantities and high frequency when there is little or no proven efficacy for their therapeutic value? Why are opioids the most commonly prescribed medication in the United States for the past decades when the adverse consequences continue to grow? Why does the medical profession continue to prescribe opioid medications that result in increased pain and increased disability? This article summarizes the inherent addictive pharmacologic properties that are the impetus and basis for America’s current opioid epidemic.