Oyeronke Olubunmi BELLO attended the School of Nursing, University College Hospital, Ibadan between 1994 and 1997 and School of Midwifery, Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomosho (now Bowen University Teaching Hospital) between 1998 and 1999. In her quest for knowledge, she proceeded to the Premier University, University of Ibadan from where she bagged the Bachelor of Education (Health) from the Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education. She is presently a Doctoral student with specifications in school and community health at the same department. She has deep passion for little children; this also prompted her to proceed to University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital from where she was specifically trained to take care of children, thus making her a professional pediatric nurse. She is working presently as Assistant Chief Nursing Officer at the University College Hospital, Ibadan


A quantitative study using retrospective survey design on the prevalence of malaria and pneumonia among under–fives at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) was investigated. It was conducted after an in-depth review of literature on prevalence of malaria and pneumonia among under-fives. Abraham Maslow’s and Florence Nightingale’s Environmental theories were used as theoretical basis for the study. Target population identified for the study included under-five children admitted and managed at UITH between January 2007 and December 2011. Total number of under-fives used for the study was 852. Data were collected from the Medical and Health Records Department of the Hospital after ethical approval was obtained. Results revealed that malaria has higher prevalence and mortality rate than pneumonia and a significant relationship exists between mortality outcome of malaria and pneumonia. Similarly, it was observed that there is a male preponderance in the prevalence of malaria and pneumonia among under-fives. The study revealed that malaria among under-five still poses a great threat to the health of children because it still has a higher prevalence and mortality than pneumonia, likewise, pneumonia at any stage among under-fives remains life-threatening, thus it should be given proper consideration through early diagnosis, management and prevention.