Per Goran Kruger

Per Goran Kruger

University of Bergen, Norway

Title: Mast cells, the key to multiple sclerosis?


Per Goran Kruger was born on 29.8.1941. Krüger 1968: Cand. Real (thesis: mast cells in the brain of the hedgehog winter/summer, female/male). NAVF-stipendiate at Pharmacology department Karolinska Institute Stockholm Sweden. Krüger is Prosector at institute For Anatomy, University of Bergen, Norway (1970), 1976: Dr. philos same place (thesis: Structural Changes of Rat Mast Cells in Relation to Histamine Release. (An in vitro study on the effects of ATP, toluidine blue and compound 48/80). He works ad Associate professor at Institute for Pathology, University of Washington, USA 1979-80. From1990-91 works as Associate professor at Moredun Research Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland. He works as Professor in cell biology, Institute of Anatomy at University of Bergen, Norway during 1994, Awarded students honor-prize as teacher at the preclinics, University of Bergen, Norway during 2002. Since 2011 he is Professor emeritus at Institute of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Norway.


Mast cells are not normally present in the unaffected human brain but were observed in the brains of MS-patients by Neumann 1890 (1).When applying  appropriate procedures it was demonstrated that the numbers of mast cells in MS autopsies far outnumbered what has earlier been observed and that the distribution and aggregation along venules within the MS- plaque border zones made it highly probable that, if stimulated, the released histamine would count for the observed oedemas which are normally observed within MS-brains (2). Further on it was demonstrated that the numbers of mast cells in the plaque-borderzones of females are approximately doubled from that in males (3), which may explain the fact that females are more inclined to developing MS than males. Mast cells may be stimulated by various stress phenomenon (4). Further; the normal relapsing - remitting phenomenon in MS may be explaind by the fact that stimulated mast cells do survive and within weeks/months may fully reload (5). Stimulation (relapsing phase), time for reloading (remitting phase), and so on.

Recent Publications:

1. Neumann, J. (1890) Über das Vorkommen der sogenannten “Mastzellen” bei Pathologischen Veränderung des Gehirns. Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medicin. 122, 378 – 380.

2. Krüger, P.G. (2001) Mast cells and multiple sclerosis: a quantitative analysis. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 27, 275 – 280.

3. Krüger, P.G and Mørk S. (2012) Mast cells and multiple sclerosis in females and males. World journal of Neuroscience. 2, 145 – 149.

4. Pang, X. et al. (1998) A neurotensin receptor antagonist inhibits acute immo bilization stress induced cardiac mast cell degranulation, a corticotrophin- releasing hormone- depending process. J. Pharmacol Exp Ther Oct: 287(1), 307 – 314.

5. Krüger, P.G and Lagunoff, D. (1981) Mast cell restoration. A study of the rat peritoneal mast cells after depletion with plymyxin B. Int Arch allergy appl Immunol 65, 278 – 290.