Sajid Mahmood Nadeem has completed his PhD from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan and postdoctoral fellowship from University of California, Riverside, USA. He is working as Assistant Professor in Soil & Environmental Sciences at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. His area of interest is plant growth under stress conditions with special reference to microbial inoculation. He has more than 20 research papers published in well reputed impact factor journals. He has also been awarded Research Productivity Award 2012, by Pakistan Council for Science & Technology on his research achievements.


Seed treatment with insecticides may adversely affect nitrogen fixation by affecting the bacterial infection to root hair and nodule formation. In this study, first bacterial survival under recommended as well as above and below recommended dose of imidacloprid was examined and then the efficacy of insecticide resistant strains was evaluated for improving chickpea growth. Rhizobium survival on the basis of the number of viable bacterial cells through plate count was examined. Among four rhizobium spp. (CRI14, CRI20, CRI34 and CRI35) two species (CRI20 and CRI35) showed resistance against insecticide. CRI35 was able to tolerate insecticide concentration above the recommended dose however CRI20 showed relatively less growth at high concentration. The efficacy of these two strains was evaluated by conducting a pot trial. Chick pea seeds were treated with recommended dose of imidacloprid and then inoculated with respective strain. Un-inoculated treated and untreated seeds were also used for comparison. The pots were arranged according to complete randomized block design in two sets having three replications each. At flowering, plants from one set were uprooted and data regarding nodulation was recorded, whereas data regarding growth and yield parameters was calculated from other set at maturity. The results showed that inoculation not only improved nodulation but also caused a significant increase in growth and yield components of inoculated plant. Rhizobium strain CRI35 performed better than other might be due to its better growth promoting traits. It can be concluded that such strains can be used effectively for improving plant growth of insecticide treated seeds.