Sameh k sadek is Associates Professor in university of Alexandria and hé is member of Clinical pathology Department, Faculty of Médicine, and Alexandria University. He completed his PHD on infertility pregnancy and he is Assistant Professor in Gynaecology department in Alexandria. He has done nearly 25 publications and went to many summits as guest speaker.


Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is one of the Most frustrating and difficult areas in reproductive medicine because the etiologic is often unknown and there are few evidence-based diagnostic and treatment strategies. RPL is defined as two or more failed clinical pregnancies as documented by ultrasonography or histopathology examination.(2) Approximately 15 percent of pregnant women experience sporadic loss of a clinically recognized pregnancy. Just 2 percent of pregnant women experience two consecutive pregnancy losses and only 0.4 to 1 percent have three consecutive pregnancy losses. Couples who have had a pregnancy loss have two major concerns: the cause and the risk of recurrence. Unfortunately, the cause of RPL can be determined in only 50 percent of patients. General etiological categories of RPL include anatomic, immunological, genetic, endocrine, thrombophilia, and environmental factors. Thrombophilia is an abnormality of blood coagulation that increases the risk of thrombosis.(5,6) A significant proportion of the population has a detectable abnormality in blood, but most of these only develop thrombosis in the presence of an additional risk factor. The human glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa is one of the best characterized receptors present on the surface of platelets.(7) GPIIb/IIIa belongs to the large family of adhesion molecules called integrins, which share a common heterodimeric structure. The primary function of GPIIb/IIIa is to aid platelet aggregation.(8) Nearly 20 years ago, Savage et al. demonstrated that the GPIIb/IIIa on the membrane of nonactivated platelets serves as a specific receptor for surfacebound fibrinogen(9) but, after platelet activation(10) this receptor acquires the ability to interact with other adhesive proteins, such as vitronectin, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor