Takashi Nakamura has completed his PhD at the age of 28 years from Kobe University. He is the professor of media studies in Faculty of Humanities in Niigata University. He has published more than 20 papers (including ones in Japanese) and two books (one as a singular author and the other as a sigular editor) in Japanese. He is an editorial board member of Annals of Behavioural Science.


This presentation focused on the action of looking at a mobile phone display as a type of nonverbal behavior/communication and compared it cross-culturally. The diversity of nonverbal behavior/communication was considered to be caused by the difference between Western and non-Western cultures. The questionnaire was conducted in three countries (the USA, Hong Kong and Japan), and a total of 309 subjects participated. The participants were required to record their opinions for the action according to the situation with ‘co-present’ familiar persons. The analysis declared that the difference between the USA and Japan was more pronounced as the relationship with the ‘co-present’ person was more intimate. The results of the Hong Kong sample were intermediate between those of the other two countries. The diversity was discussed in terms of independent/interdependent self in the perspective of cultural comparison and of mobile phone usage. The analysis revealed that the action as a form of nonverbal behavior/communication has functioned in human relationships and has been deeply embedded into culture in the mobile phone era.