Tamer Ahmed Ismail has completed his Ph.D at the age of 31 years from School of Medicine Niigata University, Japan. He is worked at Faculty of Vet. Med. Zagazig University. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of repute.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious worldwide disease. It is associated with insulin resistance. During insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and alterations in some genes occurred. Metformin is the drug of choice for treatment of type 2 diabetes. The exact mechanism of metformin regulation is still incompletely explained. In this study, the effect of metformin on serum lipid profiles, new identified genes that are related to insulin resistance and histopathology of liver and pancreas was examined. T2DM was induced by feeding rats with a high fat diet for 4 weeks plus medium dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg BW). Incidence of T2DM was confirmed and metformin was administered orally in a dose of 400 mg/kg BW for 4 weeks. Results showed that metformin improved insulin resistance by normalizing serum lipid profiles in diabetic rats. Metformin up-regulated thye expression of both insulin receptors and genes related to lipid metabolism (acyl CoA oxidase ACO; carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, CPT-1; and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, PPAR-∞). Metformin administration down-regulated fetuin-A and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) expression, moreover, normalization of perilipin expression that was decreased in T2DM rats was reported. Metformin administration induced regenerative changes in hepatocytes cytoplasm and parenchyma. In pancreas, metformin administration showed positive signaling for insulin and regeneration of pancreatic β cells. In conclusion, metformin ameliorated the changes associated with T2DM through controlling fetuin-A, RBP-4 and perilipin together with genes of lipid metabolism with regenerative changes in liver and pancreatic cells.