Hsiu-Min Tsai received her PhD from the University of Texas at Austin, School of Nursing in 2005. After graduating from the University, she went back to her country and served in Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan as the Dean of Academic Affairs for 9 years. In 2013, she was promoted to Professor and meanwhile was inducted as Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing in the United States. Tsai’s research interests focus on multiethnic women's health. She authored more than 35 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an chief editor of repute.


The purposes of this research were to: (1) develop the Female Health Literacy Mobile App, (2) implement and evaluate App effects on females’ self-leaning, self-efficacy, health promoting behavior and health literacy. The research was a pre-experimental design with pre- and post-test. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants. A total of 443 multi-ethnic females (Taiwanese, aboriginal, Vietnamese) participated in the study: 326 of them completed pretest and 118 completed both pretest and posttest. Instruments used including demographic information sheet, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, Self-Directed Learning Instrument, Adolescents’ Health-Promoting Behavior, and Health Literacy Vocabulary Scale for Taiwanese Women. Mean age of the participants was 32.19 years. Large proportion of the participants were Taiwanese, single, employed or owned a home business, had an educational level equal or higher than senior high school, had a family income between 30,000 and 50,000 NTD. Participants who graduated from high school or above scored higher on scales measuring self-learning, health promoting behavior, and health literacy. In the pretest, no significant differences were found among different ethnicities in self-leaning, self-efficacy, health promoting behavior, and health literacy. From the posttest, Hakka females scored significantly higher on self-learning, self-efficacy, and health literacy than other ethnicities. Paired t tests showed that female of any ethnicity group scored higher on self-learning, self-efficacy, health promoting behavior, and health literacy after using the Female Health Literacy Mobile App (p<.01).