Dr.Virendra Kumar has completed his Ph.D. at the age of 28 years from Agra University Agra-INDIA. I got an opportunity to work with eminent scientist Prof. Mitsugu Nishiura, from Kyoto University, Japan on various infectious diseases. I am working as Assistant director/Scientist-D in National JALMA Institute for Leprosy & Other Mycobacterial Diseases (ICMR) Ministry of Health (INDIA). JALMA abbreviate as JAPAN ASSOCIATION OF LEPROSY MISSION FOR ASIA and still working in the same banner of the Institute. I have published more than 45 papers in reputed journals and have been serving as an editorial board member of repute.     


 Bacterial biofilms are often associated with infections especially with medical implants such as catheters and other medical devices. Biofilms are formed to protect the bacteria from host defences, antibiotics and from harsh environmental conditions. We had taken four mycobacterial species (M.smegmatis,  M. fortuitum,  M.avium, and M tuberculosis)  for study of Mycobacterial biofilm. The isolates were subcultured and characterized biochemically and molecularly. The large quantity of biofilm was produced by M.smegmatis at temperature 37oC and 42 0C as compared to 300C. M. fortuitum developed more amount of biofilm at 30oC as compared to 37oC and 42oC. M.avium developed strong amount of biofilm at 30oC and 42oC  as compared to 370C. M tuberculosis (H37Rv) developed strong biofilm at 37 0C  and no biofilm at 300C and 420C in MB 7H9 media and Sauton’s media. The selected non tuberculosis mycobacteria  and  H37Rv developed strong biofilm in the presence of OADC enrichment in MB7H9   as well as Sauton’s medium. Antibiotic susceptibility of biofilms at ultrastructural level was also studied in fast-growing clinical isolates M. smegmatis in presence of  Streptomycin, Isoniazid Rifampicin, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide. Isoniazid showed strong inhibited  biofilm in fast grower and sensitive isolates. However, Pyrazinamide and Isoniazid  inhibited  biofilm of M.tuberculosis (H37Rv) and in MDR isolates Ethionamide and Moxifloxacin inhibited biofilm in slow grower and fast grower Mycobacteria. However, many  mycobacterial species are known to form biofilms, little is known about either  the genetic requirements, patterns of gene expression. In microarray hybridization, we have found that six genes were expressed in M.avium.  In M. tuberculosis MDR isolates seven genes were expressed and two genes Rv0359 and Rv3526 were homologous as earlier reported in  P. areuginosa and M. avium which might be responsible for biofilm formation.