Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, Pakistan
Zeeshan Ali has graduated from Liaquat Medical College, Jamshoro, Pakistan in 1999. He did his fellowship in Internal Medicine in 2007 from College of Physicians & Surgeons, Pakistan. Since then, he has been working at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan, one the largest tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan. He is honorary faculty at Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi & Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi. His recent research projects are on the subjects of peripheral artery disease, non alcoholic steatohepatitis & obesity in diabetic subjects. He is also supervising fellowship program for College of Physicians & Surgeons, Pakistan.
Objective: To detect the frequency of Obesity in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and eighty seven (387) type II diabetic patients of either sex and any age were included in the study. Non-purposive convenient sampling technique was used to enroll patients in the study. History regarding diabetes, hypertension (HTN), CVA, smoking and other tobacco exposure was taken. Physical examination was carried out and height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, peripheral pulses and ankle-brachial index (ABI) was calculated. Categorical variables such as gender, age groups, BMI groups, HTN, smoking, hyperlipidemia and ABI were expressed as frequencies and proportions. Means with standard deviations were calculated for continuous variables such as age, duration of diabetes, BMI, duration of HTN and duration dyslipidemia. For categorical variables, differences between patients were tested using the chi-square test. P value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Males were 128 in number (33%) and female were 259 in number (67%). Mean age was 52 yrs (+/- 9.67) and the mean duration of diabetes was 9.36 yrs (+/- 6.39). Hypertension was seen in 210 people (54%). 49 (12.7%) were smokers and 39 (10%) chewed tobacco. Normal BMI was seen in 62 patients (16%), 44 (11.4%) were overweight and 281 (72.6%) was obese. Obesity was much more prevalent amongst the female gender that is 208 (80%) versus male which was 73 (57%) and this was statistically significant (p-value 0.001). Hypertension was also more prevalent in obese patients and was statistically significant (p-value 0.04). Statistically significant lower mean BMI was found in smokers, tobacco chewers and/or had exposure to tobacco (0.001, 0.04, and 0.001 respectively). Conclusion: The study shows that there is a strong association of diabetes with and obesity. Female gender had relatively higher BMI. Hypertension was more prevalent in obese diabetic subjects. Smoking and nicotine exposure was associated with significantly lower BMI.