Adnexal tumors are growths that form on the organs and connective tissues around the uterus in women. Adnexal tumors are most often noncancerous (benign), but they can be cancerous (malignant).Adnexal tumors occur in the Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Connective tissue around the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Diagnosis of adnexal tumors involves a careful physical exam, imaging tests and, sometimes, surgery. Treatment for adnexal tumors depends on the specific location and types of cells involved.
The pathophysiology is not well understood for most adnexal masses; however, some theories have been proposed. Functional cysts may be the result of variation in normal follicle formation. Mature cystic teratoma may be the result of abnormal germ cell proliferation. Endometriomas are thought to result from retrograde menstruation or coelomic metaplasia. The exact cause of epithelial neoplasms is unknown, but recent studies have suggested a complex series of molecular genetic changes is involved.
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the UK, accounting for more than 1 in 5 cancer deaths.Around 35,400 people died from lung cancer in the UK in 2012, that’s 97 people every day. Almost half of people who die from lung cancer are aged 75 or over.Lung cancer mortality rates for men in the UK have more than halved since the 1970s. For females, the mortality rate increased by 60% between the early 1970s and the late 1980s. Since then, rates have increased more slowly. These variations reflect past smoking behaviour.In Europe, nearly 354,000 people were estimated to have died from lung cancer in 2012. The UK mortality rate is 11th lowest in Europe for males and fifth highest for females. Worldwide around 1.59 million people were estimated to have died from lung cancer in 2012, with mortality rates varying across the world.