A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that start within the brain, and secondary tumors that have spread from somewhere else, known as brain metastasis tumors. This article deals mainly with tumors that start within the brain. All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved
All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved Symptoms as consequences of increased intracranial pressure (often first noticed) Large tumors or tumors with extensive peritumoral swelling (edema) inevitably lead to elevated intracranial pressure which translates clinically into headaches, vomiting (with or without nausea), altered state of consciousness (somnolence, coma), dilation of the pupil on the side of the lesion (anisocoria), papilledema (prominent optic disc at the funduscopic eye examination). However, even small tumors obstructing the passage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can also present such symptoms. Increased intracranial pressure may result in brain herniation (i.e. displacement) of certain parts of the brain, such as the cerebellar tonsils or the temporal uncus, resulting in lethal brainstem compression. In very young children, elevated intracranial pressure may cause an increase in the diameter of the skull and bulging of the fontanelles.
New techniques for imaging scans are being researched. These may help doctors better track how well treatment is working and watch for possible tumor recurrence or growth.Researchers are examining biomarkers to find better ways of using blood or other tests to determine the presence of a brain tumor before symptoms begin. Immunotherapy, also called biological response modifier (BRM) therapy, is designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials either made by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function. Different methods are being studied for brain tumors, such as the use of dendritic cells or the use of vaccines aimed against a specific molecule on the surface of the tumor cells. Several methods are currently being tested in clinical trials.
Swedish Radiation Protection Foundation has compiled statistics from the Swedish Health Board registry’s database on the number of patients treated for brain tumors in Sweden as well as from the cancer registry and cause of death registry, during the last decade. The number of people receiving treatment fora brain tumor”of unknown nature” increased by almost 30% only between 2008 and 2012. At the same time, the number of patients with a confirmed brain tumor diagnosis remained at arelatively stable level.The number of patients who died of brain tumor “of unknown nature” also increased during the same time period. From 2008 through 2013 these patients increased by 157%. The rise is even more pronounced in the age group 0-69 years, where the number of patients who died “of tumor of unknown nature” in the brain multiplied, from 7 persons in 2008 to 82 in 2013. On the contrary, the number of patients reported dead of brain tumors with a confirmed diagnosis declined.