The name “chikungunya” derives from a word in the Kimakonde language, meaning “to become contorted”, and describes the stooped appearance of sufferers with joint pain (arthralgia). Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti mosquito (also called yellow fever mosquito) is the primary transmission agent of Chikungunya Virus. Presence of stagnated water in and around human inhabitation is one of the main causes of increased aedes mosquito population. This in turn causes a large number of mosquito bites leading to the rapid spread of Chikungunya virus.
Chikungunya typically starts with one or more of the following symptoms - chills, fever, vomiting, nausea, head ache and joint pain. The attack is sudden and sometimes it is accompanied with rashes. Severe joint pain is the main and the most problematic symptom of Chikungunya.
We provide an update on the epidemiology and disease characteristics of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Switzerland. Data were collected through the mandatory notification system of the Federal Office of Public Health. Between 2005 and 2011, a total of 1,055 TBE cases were reported, with a peak of 244 cases in 2006. The average yearly incidence was 2.0/100,000 inhabitants nationwide, with the highest regional value (7.8/100,000) in eastern Switzerland. Incidence by age peaked in 60–69 year-old patients, males predominated in all age groups. Most patients suffered from meningoencephalitis (n=567) or meningitis (n=246), seven of 1,055 patients (0.7%) died. Of 617 patients who were 40 years and older, 442 (72%) suffered from a severe course of illness, compared to 196 (51%) of 384 patients younger than 40 years.