Pathophysiology: Dressler's syndrome is a type of pericarditis — inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). Dressler's syndrome is believed to be an immune system response after damage to heart tissue or to the pericardium, from events such as a heart attack, surgery or traumatic injury. Dressler syndrome is also known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome and the term is sometimes used to refer to post-pericardiotomy pericarditis. Dressler's syndrome is associated with an immune system response to heart damage. Your body reacts to the injured tissue by sending immune cells and proteins (antibodies) to clean up and repair the affected area. Sometimes this response causes excessive inflammation in the pericardium. Postpericardiotomy syndrome might affect 10 to 40 % of people who have had heart surgery. Its symptoms include chest pain and fever. Statistical report: Estimated frequencies vary from 2-30% of patients undergoing surgery that involves opening of the pericardium. Postpericardiotomy syndrome is uncommon in infants, but the frequency increases in children and adults to as much as 30%. Treatment: The main aim is to manage pain and reduce inflammation.Some of the recommend over-the-counter medications may be prescribed •
Aspirin • Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) • Naproxen (Aleve) If those medications don't help, your doctor might prescribe: • Colchicine. This anti-inflammatory medication might be used, along with over-the-counter medications, to treat Dressler's syndrome. Some studies suggest that colchicine taken before cardiac surgery might help prevent postpericardiotomy. The effectiveness of colchicine for treating existing post-cardiac injury syndrome isn't clear. • Corticosteroids. These immune-system suppressants can reduce inflammation related to Dressler's syndrome. Corticosteroids can have serious side effects and might interfere with the healing of damaged heart tissue after a heart attack or surgery. For those reasons, corticosteroids are generally used only when other treatments don't work. In case of complications of Dressler's syndrome more-invasive treatments, are included: • Draining excess fluids. If you develop cardiac tamponade, your doctor will likely recommend a procedure (pericardiocentesis) in which a needle or small tube (catheter) is used to remove the excess fluid. The procedure is usually done using a local anesthetic. • Removing the pericardium. If you develop constrictive pericarditis, you might need surgery to remove the pericardium (pericardiectomy).