Pathophysiology: Encephalitis (en-sef-uh-LIE-tis) is inflammation of the brain. Viral infections are the most common cause of the condition. Encephalitis can cause flu-like symptoms, such as a fever or severe headache. It can also cause confused thinking, seizures, or problems with senses or movement. More serious symptoms may then develop over the next few hours or days, including: ? changes in mental state, such as confusion, drowsiness or disorientation ? seizures (fits) ? changes in personality and behavior Statistics:
The incidence of acute encephalitis in Western countries is 7.4 cases per 100,000 populations per year. In tropical countries, the incidence is 6.34 per 100,000 per year. In 2013 encephalitis was estimated to have resulted in 77,000 deaths, down from 92,000 in 1990.Herpes simplex encephalitis has an incidence of 2?4 per million population per year. Treatment: Encephalitis needs urgent treatment, usually in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU). The earlier it's diagnosed, the more successful treatment is. Treatment depends on the type of encephalitis you have, but may include: ? anti-viral medication ? steroid injections ? immunosuppressants (medicines that stop the immune system attacking healthy tissue).