Pathophysiology: Leptospirosis is a type of bacterial infection spread by animals. It's caused by a strain of bacteria called leptospira. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals. The early stages of the disease may include high fever, severe headache, muscle pain, chills, redness in the eyes, abdominal pain, jaundice, haemorrhages in skin and mucous membranes (including pulmonary bleeding), vomiting, diarrhoea and a rash. Leptospiral infection in humans causes a range of symptoms, and some infected persons may have no symptoms at all.
Treatment: Effective antibiotics include penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin and Doxycycline. In more severe cases cefotaxime or ceftriaxone should be preferred.Glucose and salt solution infusions may be administered; dialysis is used in serious cases. Elevations of serum potassium are common and if the potassium level gets too high special measures must be taken. Serum phosphorus levels may likewise increase to unacceptable levels due to renal failure.
Statistics: Dairy cattle were used as sentinels for the presence of Leptospira infection in Swedish livestock in four regions contrasting in precipitation and temperature during the summer time. Of all sampled cows 65% were of the Swedish black and white breed (SLB) and 35% of the Swedish red and brown breed (SRB). The median age of all cows was 4 years (2-12). The median grazing period per year was 5 months (3.5- 6) and the dominant form of pasture was arable land (77%).