Intellectual disability (ID), also called intellectual development disorder (IDD) or general learning disability, and formerly known as mental retardation (MR) is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. It is defined by an IQ score below 70 in addition to deficits in two or more behaviors that affect every day, general living.
Pathophysiology: Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons eg. Down syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, Fragile X syndrome (common among boys), neurofibromatosis, congenital hypothyroidism. Intellectual disability can result when the fetus does not develop properly.
Diagnosis :The three criteria must be met for a diagnosis of intellectual disability: deficits in general mental abilities, significant limitations in one or more areas of adaptive behavior across multiple environments and evidence that the limitations became apparent in childhood or adolescence. In general, people with intellectual disability have an IQ below 70, but clinical discretion may be necessary for individuals who have a somewhat higher IQ but severe impairment in adaptive functioning.
Although suicide rates in Sweden have fallen by 5.6% from 2000 to 2011, excess mortality from schizophrenia has increased by 11%, and excess mortality from bipolar disorder increased 21% from 2006 to 2011, according to data collected by the OECD. A commitment to tackling severe mental illness was one of the two priorities of the 2012-2016 Swedish Mental Health Action Plan, which was backed by funding of 96 million euros.