Movement disorders refers to a group of nervous system /neurological conditions that cause abnormal voluntary or involuntary movements, or slow, reduced movements.Abnormal movements may be rhythmical (e.g., essential tremor) or irregular, and may be rapid and jerky (e.g., tics) or slowed and sustained (e.g., Parkinson's disease, dystonia). In most cases, irregular movement cannot be consciously controlled or suppressed.
The prevalence of all common categories of movement disorders was 28·0% (95% CI 25·9–30·1). Proportions in men (27·6% [95% CI 24·5–30·7]) and women (28·3% [25·5–31·2]) were closely similar and sharply increased with age (from 18·5% [15·0–22·0] in 50–59-year olds to 51·3% [44·9–57·7] in 80–89-year olds). Almost half of all patients (90/214) had moderate-to-severe disease expression, but only 7·0% (15/214) received standard drug treatment.
Physical therapy includes stretching exercises, muscle group strengthening exercises, and range of motion exercises to prevent muscles from shortening (contracture), preserve flexibility and range of motion, and reduce the severity of symptoms. ORAL MEDICATIONS Baclofen (Lioresal) is a muscle relaxant that works on nerves in the spinal cord to reduce spasticity. The benefits of baclofen include decreased stretch reflexes, improved passive range of motion, and reduced muscle spasms, pain and tightness.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a way to inactivate the parts of the brain thought to cause overactivity or tremor in certain muscles, without destroying a part of the brain. It is currently a treatment option for adult patients with Parkinson's disease, but research is underway to determine if the procedure can benefit children with movement disorders.