The essential feature of Substance Dependence is a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiologic symptoms indicating that the individual continues use of the substance despite significant substance-related problems. Researchers have estimated that cigarette smoke has 7,357 chemical compounds from many different classes . In assessing the nature of tobacco smoke, scientists must consider chemical composition, concentrations of components, particle size, and particle charge. Long-term exposure to nicotine produces biologic adaptations leading to reduced sensitivity to some of the effects of nicotine and symptoms of distress soon after cessation of drug use .
Many treatments, including nicotine replacement therapy and non-nicotine medications, have been approved as safe and effective in treating nicotine dependence. Using more than one medication may help you get better results. There has been a larger drop in male daily smoking (from 40% in 1976 to 15% in 2002) than female daily smoking (34% in 1976 to 20% in 2002) in Sweden, with a substantial proportion (around 30%) of male ex-smokers using snus when quitting smoking.In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer.