Pulmonary atresia is a heart defect present at birth (congenital) that's normally diagnosed within the first few hours or days of life. In pulmonary atresia, the valve that lets blood out of the heart to go to your baby's lungs doesn't form correctly. Instead of opening and closing to allow blood to travel from your heart to your lungs, a solid sheet of tissue forms. Blood from the right side of your baby's heart can't go back to the lungs to pick up oxygen.Pulmonary atresia may occur with or without a ventricular septal defect (VSD).
Bluish colored skin (cyanosis), Fast breathing, Fatigue, Poor eating habits (babies may get tired while nursing or sweat during feedings), Shortness of breath.The temporary measure, which has to be taken in new-borns with pulmonary atresia, is usually given an intravenous drug (injected into a vein) called prostaglandin E1 to prevent the ductus arteriosus from closing. Blood can flow from the right side of the heart to the left side and pass through the left ventricle to the lungs to pick up oxygen by keeping the ductus arteriosus open.
In Sweden the statistical analysis on pulmonary atresia gave the result as a total number of 84 children were born with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum, giving an incidence of 4.2 per 100,000 live births. In all, 77 were operated on with a 1-year survival rate of 75%. Thirty-six children had ventriculocoronary communications, with a 1-year survival rate of 50%. At the end of the study period, 52 children were alive, 32 with biventricular repair, and 19 with univentricular repair.