Stuttering is an interruption of the normal flow of speech, which takes on many different patterns. Commonly, it involves either saying a string of repeated sounds or making abnormal pauses during speech. In early childhood, stuttering is sometimes part of normal speech development. In fact, about 5% of all young children go through a brief period of stuttering when they are learning to talk. Stuttering typically is first noticed between the ages of 2 and 5. It usually goes away on its own within a matter of months. In a small number of children (around 1%), stuttering continues and may get worse. Boys are more likely to stutter than girls.
In addition, normal problems with fluency tend to come and go, or happen only at certain times (such as when a child is tired or excited), but true stuttering is present most of the time. Once a child begins to stutter, he or she may feel embarrassed, self-conscious or anxious when asked to speak. The child may find it hard to socialize with friends and also may intentionally avoid situations where talking is expected, such as telephone calls, classroom discussions and school plays. Somewhat unexpectedly, many children who stutter have no problem when they sing. According to some experts, this is because speaking and singing often come from opposite sides of the brain, especially in right-handed people. Although episodes of stuttering speech are usually easy to recognize, a diagnosis of true stuttering should always be made by a professional. If you are concerned that your child seems to be stuttering, talk with your child's doctor.
We did a systematic search and synthesis of evidence on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, symptomatic disease, and circulating serotypes in Western Europe. Using data from studies published between 1992 and 2005 we calculated a weighted mean invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal meningitis incidence rate per 100?000 children aged 2 years or younger within 95% confidence intervals, together with the prevalence of S pneumonia serotypes and resistance to penicillin.