Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite. The infection produces a wide range of clinical syndromes in humans, land and sea mammals, and various bird species. T gondii has been recovered from locations throughout the world.T gondii has 2 distinct life cycles. The sexual cycle occurs only in cats, the definitive host. The asexual cycle occurs in other mammals (including humans) and various strains of birds. It consists of 2 forms: tachyzoites (the rapidly dividing form observed in the acute phase of infection) and bradyzoites (the slowly growing form observed in tissue cysts).
Treatment is usually unnecessary in asymptomatic hosts, except in children younger than 5 years. Symptomatic patients should be treated until immunity is ensured.Sulfadiazine. This antibiotic is used with pyrimethamine to treat toxoplasmosis.In the Sweden, about 1,982,294 cases of Toxoplasmosis infection are reported in humans each year. Almost 12% of the Sweden population is infected with Toxoplasmosis, a parasite of dogs and cats that can be passed from animals to humans.