Trench Fever is an uncommon rickettsial fever caused by Bartonella quintana and transmitted by the louse Pediculus humanus; first appeared as an epidemic during trench warfare in World War I (1914-1918); characterized by the sudden onset of chills and fever,myalgia (especially of the back and legs), headache, and general malaise that typically lasts 5 days but may recur. B. quintana is common in homeless people; again, transmitted by body lice. About 5-10% of homeless populations (1.5 million people in the Sweden) harbor chronic infection with B. quintana.
Tetracycline-group antibiotics (doxycycline, tetracycline) are commonly used. Chloramphenicol is an alternative medication recommended under circumstances that render use of tetracycline derivates undesirable, such as severe liver malfunction, kidney deficiency, in children under nine years and in pregnant women. The drug is administered for seven to ten days. The NICE (National Institute of Clinical Excellence) advice to doctors on Treatment of Trench Fever in individuals, from a few years ago, states that studies have shown that giving Calpol or other fever lowering drugs will NOT reduce the risk of febrile convulsion. Fever is NOT the disease but is your body fighting the disease, so if you lower the fever you make it harder for the body to fight the bacteria/virus and more likely to get serious complications from the germ.