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Rickettsial infections are caused by a variety of bacteria from the genera Rickettsia, Orientia, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Neoehrlichia, and Anaplasma . Rickettsia spp. are classically divided into the typhus group and spotted fever group (SFG). Orientia spp. make up the scrub typhus group.Tsutsugamushi, the pathogen that causes scrub typhus, is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected chigger, the larval stage of Leptotrombidium mites. These larvae are not host specific and feed for 2-10 days on the skin fluids of the host. Wild rats serve as the natural reservoir for the chiggers.When the chiggers feed on humans, infection occurs.
In the Sweden about 327 cases of Typhus fever are reported in each year. Almost 10% of the Sweden population is suffering with Typhus fever, a disease caused by bacteria called Rickettsia typhi or bacteria called Rickettsia felis.Antibiotics are the standard of care in the treatment of typhus. Continue antibiotics for 48-72 hours after the fever has resolved. A second course of antibiotic therapy is usually curative in cases of recrudescent typhus.