The bacteria that cause urinary tract infections typically enter the bladder via the urethra. However, infection may also occur via the blood or lymph. It is believed that the bacteria are usually transmitted to the urethra from the bowel, with females at greater risk due to their anatomy. After gaining entry to the bladder, E. Coli are able to attach to the bladder wall and form a biofilm that resists the body's immune response.
The mean diagnostic rate was 1.5% for boys (range, 0.7%-3.0%) and 1.7% for girls (range, 0.7%-2.9%). The diagnostic rate was significantly higher in June than in December. The mean incidence was 1.0% for both boys and girls (range, 0.3%-3.0% and 0.4%-2.9%, respectively). The minimum cumulative incidence at 2 years of age was estimated to be 2.2% for boys and 2.1% for girls.
Treatment with antimicrobials aims to eradicate the bacteria causing infection. The chosen antimicrobials depend on extent of infection (uncomplicated or complicated), common local pathogens, and resistance patterns. Examples of antibiotics for uncomplicated UTI include: • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole • Fluoroquinolones • Nitrofurantoin
Researchers are testing injected and oral vaccines to see which works best. Another method being considered for women is to apply the vaccine directly as a suppository in the vagina. Other scientists are working on identifying ways to prevent UTIs using probiotics. Participants in clinical trials can play a more active role in their own health care, gain access to new research treatments before they are widely available, and help others by contributing to medical research.