Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare obstetric emergency in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters the mother's blood stream via the placental bed of the uterus and trigger an allergic reaction. This reaction then results in cardiorespiratory (heart and lung) collapse and coagulopathy. Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a pregnancy complication that causes life-threatening conditions, such as heart failure. It can affect you, your baby, or both of you.
The pathophysiology of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is poorly understood. Based on the original description, it was theorized that amniotic fluid and fetal cells enter the maternal circulation, possibly triggering an anaphylactic reaction to fetal antigens. If she does not respond to resuscitation, perform a perimortem cesarean delivery, Treat hypotension with crystalloid and blood products. Use pressors as necessary, Consider pulmonary artery catheterization in patients who are hemodynamically unstable, continuously monitor the fetus.
Amniotic fluid embolism is one of the least frequent complications of parturition, but the most dangerous of all. 38 cases of fatal amniotic fluid embolism were diagnosed in Sweden during the years 1951-1980, i.e. 1 case for every 83,000 live births. The proportion of amniotic fluid embolism in maternal mortality as a whole increased from 1.2 to 16.5% during this period. Predisposing factors identified were gemini/polydyramnios, abruptio placentae, hypertonic labor, rupture of the birth canal, macrosomia, and obstetrical interventions such as administration of oxytocin and fundal pressure.