Craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue that occurs most commonly in children but also in men and women in their 50s and 60s. People may present with bitemporal inferior quadrantanopia leading to bitemporal hemianopia, as the tumor may compress the optic chiasm. Craniopharyngiomas are typically very slow growing tumors. They arise from the cells along the pituitary stalk, specifically from nests of odontogenic (tooth-forming) epithelium within the suprasellar/diencephalic region and, therefore, contain deposits of calcium, which are evident on an x-ray. Balance disorder, Dry skin, Fatigue, Fever, Headache, Hypersomnia, Lethargy, Myxedema, Nausea etc. include is symptoms.
Craniopharyngiomas account for 1.2 to 4.6% of all intracranial tumours, corresponding to 0.5 to 2.5 new cases per million population per year. They are the most common non-neuroepithelial intracerebral neoplasms in children, accounting for 5 to 10% of intracranial tumours. The 10-year survival rate reported in children with craniopharyngioma is about 90%.
Treatment generally consists of subfrontal or transsphenoidal excision. Surgery using the transsphenoidal route is often performed by a joint team of ENT and neurosurgeons. Because of the location of the craniopharyngioma near the brain and skullbase, a surgical navigation system might be used to verify the position of surgical tools during the operation. Additional radiotherapy is also used if total removal is not possible.
The ongoing researches in Switzerland on craniopharyngioma include: Childhood craniopharyngioma - changes of treatment strategies in the trials, Distal gastric bypass surgery for the treatment of hypothalamic obesity after childhood craniopharyngioma.