Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain. Encephalitis with meningitis is known as meningo encephalitis. Symptoms include headache, fever, confusion, drowsiness, and fatigue. Further symptoms include seizures or convulsions, tremors, hallucinations, stroke, and memory problems. In 2013 encephalitis was estimated to have resulted in 77,000 deaths, down from 92,000 in 1990.
The signs and symptoms of tick born encephalitis are The virus can infect the brain (encephalitis), the meninges (meningitis) or both (meningoencephalitis).
In general, mortality is 1% to 2%, with deaths occurring 5 to 7 days after the onset of neurologic signs. In dogs, the disease also manifests as a neurological disorder with signs varying from tremors to seizures and death. In ruminants, neurological disease is also present, and animals may refuse to eat, appear lethargic, and also develop respiratory signs.
Advanced Treatment Methods:
Antiviral medications (if virus is cause), Antibiotics, (if bacteria is cause), Steroids are used to reduce brain swell, Sedatives for restlessness, Acetaminophen for fever, Physical therapy. The disease is incurable once manifested, so there is no specific drug therapy for TBE.
Symptomatic brain damage requires hospitalization and supportive care based on syndrome severity. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, may be considered under specific circumstances for symptomatic relief.
Tracheal intubation and respiratory support may be necessary. Prevention includes non-specific (tick-bite prevention, tick checks) and specific prophylaxis in the form of a vaccine.
TBE immunoglobulin is no longer used. Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine is very effective and available in many disease endemic areas and in travel clinics. Raised intracranial pressure may be managed with mannitol. There is no transmission from person to person and therefore patients do not need to be isolated. A breakthrough in the field of Japanese encephalitis therapeutics is the identification of macrophage receptor involvement in the disease severity.
A recent report of an Indian group demonstrates the involvement of monocyte and macrophage receptor CLEC5A in severe inflammatory response in Japanese Encephalitis infection of the brain. This transcriptomic study provides a hypothesis of neuro inflammation and a new lead in development of appropriate therapeutic against Japanese encephalitis. Anti-viral medications are effective for treating herpes encephalitis. However, they have not yet been shown to work for other forms. Instead, treatment often focuses on relieving symptoms, using: pain killers, corticosteroids (to reduce brain inflammation), mechanical, ventilation, or breathing treatments, lukewarm sponge baths, anticonvulsants, sedatives (for seizures, restlessness, aggressiveness, and irritability), rest and fluids.