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Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb). It is the result of the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The first sign is most often vaginal bleeding not associated with a menstrual period. Other symptoms include pain with urination or sexual intercourse, or pelvic pain.Endometrial cancer occurs most commonly after menopause.
The signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer include:
• Vaginal bleeding after menopause
• Bleeding between periods
• An abnormal, watery or blood-tinged discharge from your vagina
• Pelvic pain
• Pain during intercourse
The most frequent type of endometrial cancer is endometrioid carcinoma, which accounts for more than 80% of cases. Endometrial cancer is commonly diagnosed by endometrial biopsy or by taking samples during a procedure known as dilation and curettage. A pap smear is not typically sufficient to show endometrial cancer. Regular screening in those is at normal risk. Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, and North America have the highest rates of endometrial cancer, whereas Africa and West Asia have the lowest rates. Asia saw 41% of the world's endometrial cancer diagnoses in 2012, whereas Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, and North America together comprised 48% of diagnoses.
The treatment of endometrial cancer varies depending on the stage of the cancer. Staging is based on the findings from the initial surgery, which involves the removal of the entire uterus and cervix (total abdominal hysterectomy), the fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. These organs are examined to determine the extent of the cancer (staging). During this operation, cells are collected from the peritoneal cavity and tested for cancer. The lymph nodes in the pelvis and surrounding areas are removed and examined for cancer. Only then is a decision made about treatment.
The other treatment methods are: Surgery, Radiation, Hormone therapy, Chemotherapy.
Surgery is done to remove the uterus is recommended for most women with endometrial cancer.
Radiation therapy uses powerful energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. In some instances, your doctor may recommend radiation to reduce your risk of a cancer recurrence after surgery.
Hormone therapy may be an option if you have advanced endometrial cancer that has spread beyond the uterus and include, medications to increase the amount of progesterone in your body. Synthetic progestin, a form of the hormone progesterone, may help stop endometrial cancer cells from growing, medications to reduce the amount of estrogen in your body.
Chemotherapy may be recommended for women with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer that has spread beyond the uterus. These drugs enter your bloodstream and then travel through your body, killing cancer cells. The treatment of endometrial cancer varies depending on the stage of the cancer. Staging is based on the findings from the initial surgery, which involves the removal of the entire uterus and cervix, the fallopian tubes, and the ovaries.