Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 months if the woman is over age 35). If a woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, hormone problems, and lifestyle or environmental factors.
Most cases of infertility in women result from problems with producing eggs. In premature ovarian failure, the ovaries stop functioning before natural menopause. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the ovaries may not release an egg regularly or they may not release a healthy egg. About a third of the time, infertility is because of a problem with the woman. One third of the time, it is a problem with the man. Sometimes no cause can be found.
The most common causes of female infertility include problems with ovulation, damage to fallopian tubes or uterus, or problems with the cervix. Age can contribute to infertility because as a woman ages, her fertility naturally tends to decrease. Hypothalamic-pituitary factors, Ovarian factors, Tubal (ectopic)/peritoneal factors, Uterine factors, Cervical factors, Vaginal factors can also result in female infertility.
Female infertility can be treated in several ways, including Laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, Medical therapy such as clompiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins, which can lead to ovulation. Metformin is another type of medication that may restore or normalize ovulation in women who have insulin resistance. Intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is used when there is sperm-related infertility. Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer and zygote intrafallopian transfer can also be performed. Egg donation or surrogacy helps women who do not have normally functioning ovaries