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Fetal Macrosomia

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  • Fetal macrosomia

    Introduction

    The average newborn weighs about 3.4kg (7lb 8oz). Babies weighing more than 4kg (8lb 13oz) at birth are considered larger than average, or macrosomic. If you have a very large baby, weighing 4.5kg (9lb 15oz) or more, it can put you and your baby at greater risk of certain complications.

    Although many women give birth to very big babies without any problems, it's common to need a bit of help. Macrosomia may place the mother and fetus or neonate at risk for adverse outcomes. Antenatal risk factors reportedly predict macrosomia at birth. Identification of these at-risk pregnancies may allow intervention to reduce the risk, to provide appropriate counseling, and to implement appropriate plans for monitoring and follow-up care during pregnancy and after delivery. Gestational age is associated with macrosomia. Birth weight increases as gestational age increases.

  • Fetal macrosomia

    Fetal sex influences macrosomic potential. Male infants weigh more than female infants at any gestational age. Recent studies have confirmed this association. Diabetes that is poorly controlled in pregnancy is the greatest risk factor for fetal macrosomia. This is believed to be partially explained by excessive growth due to elevated maternal plasma glucose levels and resulting elevated insulin and insulinlike growth factor levels, which stimulate glycogen synthesis, fat deposition, and fetal growth. Excessive maternal weight gain and/or prepregnancy weight also play the same role in macrosomia by providing excessive growth in selected cases. The reason for this undiagnosed glucose intolerance in these individual needs to be studied.Genetic factors also contribute to fetal size. Taller and heavier parents typically produce larger offspring.

  • Fetal macrosomia

    Fetal macrosomia can cause a baby to become wedged in the birth canal, sustain birth injuries, or require the use of forceps or a vacuum device during delivery. Increased risk of cesarean delivery is the primary maternal risk factor associated with macrosomia. Genital tract lacerations during childbirth, fetal macrosomia can cause a baby to injure the birth canal — such as by tearing vaginal tissues and the muscles between the vagina and the anus (perineal muscles). Uterine Bleeding after delivery. Uterine rupture, fetal macrosomia increases the risk of uterine rupture of the previous Uterine C-Section. Although rare, shoulder dystocia is the most serious complication associated with fetal macrosomia. Fracture of the clavicle and damage to the nerves of the brachial plexus are the most common fetal injuries associated with macrosomia.

Expert PPTs

Speaker PPTs

  • Moorkath Nandakumaran
    Hyperglycemia alters maternal-fetal transport kinetics of manganese, chromium and vanadium in diabetic model human placental lobule in vitro : Implications for diabetes mellitu
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  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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  • Simona Claudia Cambrea
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  • Guinchard Emmanuelle
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  • Dong Zheng
    The protective effect of Astaxanthin on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in mice
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