Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. It may be benign. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection. Types: Hematuria is of two types 1. Microscopic hematuria - Small amounts of blood can be seen on light microscopy or urinanalysis. 2. Macroscopic hematuria –Gross hematuria Diagnosis: Sometimes the cause of hematuria can be elucidated solely on the basis of the medical history and urine testing, or urinalysis.
Causes Urinary tract infection with bacteria. The vast majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli, with a smaller percentage due toKlebsiella,pneumonia and Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Nephrolithiasis,stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter ,Trauma. Cancer of the kidney, prostate or bladder Other causes includes: Glomerular bleeding: eg: IgA nephropathy ("Berger's disease"), Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane disease ,Sickle cell disease.
Statistics A study group of originally 623 employed women of Northwestern Switzerland who were aged 30 to 49 yr and showing objective evidence of intake of phenacetin-containing analgesics, and a control group of 621 comparable women showing no such intake, were examined in 1968 and followed-up five times from 1969 to 1975 for laboratory evidence of urorenal disorders. Mortality was higher in the study group, with 21 deaths, compared to the control group, with 5 deaths, and was higher than expected in a comparative population in Switzerland (P less than or equal to 0.05). In both study and control groups, morbidity was low.